Magic items can be found on the Magic Item Log.
Following is an “as exhaustive as we can get it” list of rules where how something works in Brightshore differs from out-of-the-box D&D Fifth Edition. In general, the goals here are to stay as close to out-of-the-box as possible, while at the same time accounting for having scores of players and almost a dozen DMs.
By using the spell detect magic, or other similar abilities, you learn whether an item in range is magical and the school of magic the enchantment belongs to (if any).
By examining an item and fiddling with it over the course of a short rest, you learn whether the item is magical or not. If the item has any constant properties that don't need to be activated, you can discover them through experimentation. (For example, the ring of swimming doesn't require attunement or use of charges. If a character puts on the ring and goes for a swim, they'll learn that they can swim faster than normal.) Certain items may give a clue as to what they do through their design or runes etched into them.
Whether or not a magical item requires attunement to use, you can attempt to attune to it and get a general sense of the item's properties over the course of a short rest.
In order to learn an item's exact properties, it must be identified. This can be accomplished by using the spell identify or taking it to town to have someone there cast identify for you. In addition to learning all of the mechanics of the item's use, you may also learn bits and pieces of lore behind it. Note that curses are not guaranteed to be revealed by using identify, as per standard Fifth Edition rules.
If you find a potion, you may take a small taste to get a general sense of its properties (without consuming a dose of the potion). This requires one action.
The following spells have the following changes and clarifications (presented alphabetically):